Most Recent Action
The EPA and the NHTSA have finalized standards that will increase average fuel economy requirements for cars and light-duty trucks to 54.5 miles per gallon by 2025.
Model Years 2012-2016 Standards
On May 7, 2010 the Obama Administration issued a final joint rule to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase fuel economy for all new cars and trucks sold in the United States. The EPA coordinated with the Department of Transportation’s (DOT) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to propose standards for passenger cars, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles, covering model years 2012 through 2016.
The EPA set federal emissions standards for greenhouse gases using its authority granted to it by the U.S. Supreme Court (Massachusetts v. EPA). NHTSA set related fuel economy standards under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. The purpose is to allow auto manufacturers the ability to build a single light-duty national fleet significantly reduces greenhouse gases.
The standards apply to passenger cars, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles, covering model years 2012-2016, equivalent to 35.5 miles per gallon if the automotive industry were to meet this CO2 level all through fuel economy improvements.
Model Years 2017-2025 Standards
On July 29, 2011, President Obama announced joint rulemaking would also take place, for model years 2017-2025. Theproposed standards were published in the Federal Register on December 1, 2011. The final standards were announced in August 2012 and finalized in October 2012.
The EPA set an average carbon dioxide limit of 163 grams per mile by 2025, which would equate to 54.5 miles per gallon if emissions are reduced primarily through fuel economy improvements.
The NHTSA will require automobile manufacturers to achieve a fleetwide average of 41 mpg in 2021. Prior to the 2022 model year, the NHTSA will complete a second review of standards, subject to a separate notice and comment period, that is projected to increase the fleetwide average to something between 48.7 mpg and 49.7 mpg in 2025.
The EPA and the NHTSA estimate the rule will increase the average price of a vehicle by $1,800 in 2025. However, consumers would save an estimated $5,700 to $7,400 in gasoline over the life of the vehicle.
The agencies predict the rule will save 4 billion barrels of oil and reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 2 billion metric tons.
The rule includes targeted incentives to encourage early adoption and introduction into the marketplace of advanced technologies to dramatically improve vehicle performance, including:
- Incentives for electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel cells vehicles;
- Incentives for hybrid technologies for large pickups and for other technologies that achieve high fuel economy levels on large pickups;
- Incentives for natural gas vehicles;
- Credits for technologies with potential to achieve real-world greenhouse gas reductions and fuel economy improvements that are not captured by the standards test procedures.
Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency, et al., 549 U.S. 497 (2007): Ruled that the Clean Air Act gives the EPA the authority to regulate tailpipe emissions of greenhouse gases if the Administrator determines cause or contribute to air pollution and “may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare.”
Final Rule, August 28, 2012
Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA), August 2012
Joint Technical Support Document (TSD), August 2012
EPA Response to Comments, August 2012
Proposed Standards, Dec. 2011
Draft Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA), Nov. 2011
Draft Joint Technical Support Document (TSD), Nov. 2011
MY 2017-2025 Notice of Intent, August 2011
MY 2017-2025 Standards Fact Sheet, July 2011
Supplemental Notice Fact Sheet;Dec. 2010
Supplemental Notice; Nov. 2010
California Air Resources Board’s Letter of Support (PDF); October 1, 2010
Fact Sheet; Oct. 2010
Next steps for the EPA; May 2010
40 CFR Parts 85, 86 & 600; 49 CFR Parts 531, 533, 536, et al. [EPA-HG-OAR-2009-0472] – Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards; Final Rule – May 7, 2010.
Notice of Upcoming Joint Rulemaking to Establish Vehicle GHG Emissions and CAFE Standards; 74 Fed. Reg. 24007, May 22, 2009.
Regulatory Impact Analysis; April 2010
Joint Technical Support Document; April 2010